We’re less than a month away from the launch of Parker Solar Probe! NASA’s Launch Services Program is hard at work getting the spacecraft ready for launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy. Follow along with our countdown to T-zero! nasa.gov/solarprobe
A Northrop Grumman Pegasus XL rocket, carried underneath a modified L-1011 airplane, departed Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on June 6 on the way to Kwajalein Atoll in the Pacific Ocean. The rocket and carrier jet returned to Vandenberg on June 8 after engineers encountered a technical problem with the launch vehicle during the ferry flight. Credit: NASA/Randy Beaudoin
NASA and Northrop Grumman are expected to base the launch of an air-dropped Pegasus rocket with a NASA science satellite from Cape Canaveral later this year, after originally trying to get the mission into space from a remote island in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.
The space agency has not announced the move, but three officials involved in the mission said the launch of NASA’s Ionospheric Connection Explorer — ICON — a small satellite instrumented to study the link between weather on Earth and conditions at the edge of space, is expected to shift from Kwajalein Atoll in the Pacific Ocean to Cape Canaveral.
The air-launched rocket was supposed to send the ICON satellite into orbit June 14. The Pegasus XL rocket was to take off from a U.S. military airfield on Kwajalein Atoll, located in the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean around 2,400 miles (3,900 kilometers) southwest of Honolulu, under an L-1011 carrier jet, then drop from the belly of the aircraft and fire into orbit.
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A mission 60 years in the making, Parker #SolarProbe will make a historic journey to the Sun’s corona. Discover how a recently-installed heat shield will keep our spacecraft and its instruments at a relatively comfortable temperature of approximately 85 degrees Fahrenheit
The first launch opportunity is just under four weeks away and final preparations are under way. The Thermal Protective Shield, TPS, has been installed to protect the spacecraft from the intense heat of the sun.
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In a background magnetic field, represented by the cyan arrows, two electrons are propagating to the right, executing identical gyromotion. A circularly polarized electromagnetic wave approaches the upper electron from the left.
Encircling Earth are two enormous rings — called the Van Allen radiation belts — of highly energized ions and electrons. Various processes can accelerate these particles to relativistic speeds, which endanger spacecraft unlucky enough to enter these giant bands of damaging radiation. Scientists had previously identified certain factors that might cause particles in the belts to become highly energized, but they had not known which cause dominates.
Now, with new research from NASA’s Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms — THEMIS — missions, published in Geophysical Research Letters, the verdict is in. The main culprit is a process known as local acceleration, caused by electromagnetic waves called chorus waves. Named after their characteristic rising tones, reminiscent of chirping birds, chorus waves speed up the particles pushing them along like a steady hand repeatedly pushing a swing. This process wasn’t a widely accepted theory before the Van Allen Probes mission.
Establishing the main cause of the radiation belt enhancements provides key information for models that forecast space weather — and thus protect our technology in space.
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As we develop more and more powerful tools to peer beyond our solar system, we learn more about the seemingly endless sea of faraway stars and their curious casts of orbiting planets. But there’s only one star we can travel to directly and observe up close — and that’s our own: the Sun.
Two upcoming missions will soon take us closer to the Sun than we’ve ever been before, providing our best chance yet at uncovering the complexities of solar activity in our own solar system and shedding light on the very nature of space and stars throughout the universe.
Together, NASA’s Parker Solar Probe and ESA’s (the European Space Agency) Solar Orbiter may resolve decades-old questions about the inner workings of our nearest star. Their comprehensive, up-close study of the Sun has important implications for how we live and explore: Energy from the Sun powers life on Earth, but it also triggers space weather events that can pose hazard to technology we increasingly depend upon. Such space weather can disrupt radio communications, affect satellites and human spaceflight, and — at its worst — interfere with power grids. A better understanding of the fundamental processes at the Sun driving these events could improve predictions of when they’ll occur and how their effects may be felt on Earth.
“Our goal is to understand how the Sun works and how it affects the space environment to the point of predictability,” said Chris St. Cyr, Solar Orbiter project scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “This is really a curiosity-driven science.”
Parker Solar Probe is slated to launch in the summer of 2018, and Solar Orbiter is scheduled to follow in 2020. These missions were developed independently, but their coordinated science objectives are no coincidence: Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter are natural teammates.
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#MAVEN measurements of a series of solar flares that erupted in September 2017 provided the first in situ data of #Mars’ upper atmospheric response to such an event.
Data from MAVEN’s suite of instruments revealed increased interactions between Mars’ ionosphere and thermosphere, and significantly higher than average O₂ atmospheric escape rates.
Read a related story in the American Geophysical Union (AGU)‘s EOS publication: http://bit.ly/2JfYbKJ.
To read the original related paper in Geophysical Research Letters, please visit: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com….
Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics
University of Colorado Boulder
(Video credit: NASA Goddard)
Magnetic reconnection, one of the most important processes in the plasma-filled space around Earth, dissipates magnetic energy and propels charged particles, both of which contribute to a dynamic space weather system that scientists want to understand and someday predict. (NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/Joy Ng video)
The discovery will help scientists understand the role magnetic reconnection plays elsewhere in space, for example, in heating the inexplicably hot solar corona — the sun’s outer atmosphere — and accelerating the supersonic solar wind. NASA’s upcoming Parker Solar Probe mission will be launched directly toward the sun this summer to investigate exactly those phenomena, armed with this new understanding of magnetic reconnection near Earth.
And since magnetic reconnection occurs throughout the universe, what scientists learn about it around our planet — which is easier to examine — can be applied to other processes farther away.
“MMS discovered electron magnetic reconnection, a new process much different from the standard magnetic reconnection that happens in calmer areas around Earth,” said Tai Phan, a senior fellow in the Space Sciences Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley. “This finding helps scientists understand how turbulent magnetic fields dissipate energy throughout the cosmos.”
Phan is lead author of a paper describing the findings that will be published this week in the journal Nature.
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Significant Space Weather Impact on the Escape of Hydrogen from Mars
Newly published MAVEN results indicate that atmospheric escape of hydrogen during a strong solar storm that impacted Mars in September 2017 was comparable to the seasonal escape of hydrogen over a full #Martian year.
Read the full publication in American Geophysical Union (AGU)‘s Geophysical Research Letters: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018GL077727.
Center for Space Physics at Boston University
UC Berkeley Space Sciences Lab