How ‘Killer Electrons’ in Space Can Wreak Havoc on Earth

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We have seen the devastating effects of extreme weather patterns on Earth, from hurricanes to tornados, but what about storms in space?

If a geomagnetic storm of significant magnitude strikes, the costs to spacecraft, including vital communication satellites, could total $1 trillion and take up to a decade to recover losses.

Which is why a group of scientists, from academia and government, met in Santa Fe, New Mexico, earlier this month to compare notes and move the field of space weather research to the next level. The SHIELDS workshop, under the patronage of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, covered multiple disciplines including plasma physics, computational science, and engineering.

PCMag went along to learn more about geomagnetic storms and substorms and how data from the Van Allen Probes, which NASA launched in 2012 to send back data from the radiation belts surrounding Earth, is allowing scientists to build sophisticated modeling to see if they can predict space weather.

The complete article, courtesy of PCmag and SOPHIA STUART

A Constant Stream of Charged Particles Impinges on Mars Atmosphere

A constant stream of charged particles impinges on Mars at roughly one million miles per hour. This solar wind is capable of picking up ions from Mars’ upper atmosphere and stripping them away from the planet out into space. MAVEN has measured this escape rate under present conditions to be about 100 grams (or ¼ lb.) per second.

Unlike Earth, which has the protection of a large, global magnetic field, Mars is directly impacted by the solar wind, although its tenuous atmosphere (< 1% of Earth’s) prevents the solar wind from impacting the planet’s surface.

The complete article courtesy of NASA’s MAVEN Mission to Mars

MAVEN Returns First Ever Measurements of Solar Wind Erosion at Mars

Scientists have long suspected the solar wind of stripping the Martian atmosphere into space, a process that may have turned Mars from a blue world early in its history into the red planet that we see today. In 2014, NASA’s MAVEN orbiter arrived at Mars and began studying its upper atmosphere.

Now, MAVEN has returned the first-ever measurements of solar wind erosion at Mars, observing ions in the upper atmosphere as they pick up energy from the electric field of the solar wind and escape to space. 

(Video credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center)

NASA Goddard
NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Article courtesy of
NASA’s MAVEN Mission to Mars

 

Space weather satellite ICON on course for summer 2017 launch

NASA’s ICON mission, depicted in this artist’s concept, will study the ionosphere from a height of about 350 miles to understand how the combined effects of terrestrial weather and space weather influence this ionized layer of particles. (NASA image)

NASA’s ICON mission, depicted in this artist’s concept, will study the ionosphere from a height of about 350 miles to understand how the combined effects of terrestrial weather and space weather influence this ionized layer of particles. (NASA image)

NASA’s newest space weather research satellite, the Ionospheric Connection Explorer, is on course for a summer 2017 launch after UC Berkeley scientists and their colleagues shipped its four instruments to Utah for testing, prior to being packed into the final satellite.

The ICON mission, led by UC Berkeley’s Space Sciences Laboratory with the help of scientists and engineers from around the world, will add one more satellite to NASA’s fleet of 26 heliophysics satellites. Its mission: to understand the tug-of-war between Earth’s atmosphere and the space environment.

The complete article courtesy Robert Sanders, Media relations Berkeley News

 

MAVEN scientists analyze data to derive the history of Mars’ atmosphere:

(Image credit: NASA/GSFC)

(Image credit: NASA/GSFC)

MAVEN scientists analyze data from the spacecraft and take three approaches to derive the history of Mars’ atmosphere:
— Use ratios of stable isotopes to determine the integrated loss to space
— Use observed changes in escape in response to changing energetic inputs to directly extrapolate back in time
— Model escape processes using current conditions and extrapolate models back in time

Taking these approaches allows MAVEN scientists to determine how various space weather events affect the upper atmosphere of Mars today and how they have contributed to its evolution over time. Capturing events of different magnitudes becomes more likely over time and contributes to producing more accurate model extrapolations back in time.

MAVEN data enable scientists to:
— Investigate atmospheric escape response to regular solar wind variations and to major events (solar flares, coronal mass ejections)
— Update an estimate of solar wind evolution
— Determine how solar energetic particles contribute to escape, and
— Estimate integrated historical loss to space

In order to accurately model Mars’ atmospheric evolution, MAVEN scientists not only consider major solar events that occur today, but they also use data from the Kepler Mission to model the output of Sun-like stars at various points in their evolution.

One complicating factor is that the tilt of Mars’ spin axis (obliquity) has varied between 15° and 45° over just the past 10 million years and between 0° and 70° over billions of years.

Article and photos courtesy of NASA’s MAVEN Mission to Mars

'NASA scientists have determined that a primitive ocean on Mars held more water than Earth's Arctic Ocean and that the Red Planet has lost 87 percent of that water to space. Image Credit: @[54971236771:274:NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration]/ @[395013845897:274:NASA Goddard]'
'The sweep of NASA Kepler mission’s search for small, habitable planets is shown in this artist's concept. The first planet smaller than Earth, Kepler-20e, was discovered in December 2011 orbiting a Sun-like star slightly cooler and smaller than our sun every six days. But it is scorching hot and unable to maintain an atmosphere or a liquid water ocean. Kepler-22b was announced in the same month, as the first planet in the habitable zone of a sun-like star, but is more than twice the size of Earth and therefore unlikely to have a solid surface. Kepler-186f was discovered in April 2014 and is the first Earth-size planet found in the habitable zone of a small, cool M dwarf about half the size and mass of our sun. Kepler-452b is the first near-Earth-Size planet in the habitable zone of a star very similar to the sun. (Image credit: @[338122981393:274:NASA Ames Research Center]/W. Stenzel)'
'Changes in Tilt of Mars' Axis Modern-day Mars experiences cyclical changes in climate and, consequently, ice distribution. Unlike Earth, the obliquity (or tilt) of Mars changes substantially on timescales of hundreds of thousands to millions of years. At present day obliquity of about 25-degree tilt on Mars' rotational axis, ice is present in relatively modest quantities at the north and south poles (top left). This schematic shows that ice builds up near the equator at high obliquities (top right) and the poles grow larger at very low obliquities (bottom) (Image credit: @[8261258923:274:NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory]-Caltech)'

Radiation Belt Processes in a Declining Solar Cycle

An artist’s rendering of the twin Van Allen Probes observatories with fully deployed instruments trailing each other along a geocentric orbit (an ellipse measuring 1.1 × 5.8 Earth radii), cutting through the inner magnetosphere. Over the extended mission, the probes will quantify the processes governing Earth’s radiation belt and ring current environment as the solar cycle transitions from solar maximum through the declining phase.

An artist’s rendering of the twin Van Allen Probes observatories with fully deployed instruments trailing each other along a geocentric orbit (an ellipse measuring 1.1 × 5.8 Earth radii), cutting through the inner magnetosphere. Over the extended mission, the probes will quantify the processes governing Earth’s radiation belt and ring current environment as the solar cycle transitions from solar maximum through the declining phase.

The Van Allen Probes began an extended mission in November to advance understanding of Earth’s radiation belts.

The morning of 30 August 2012 saw an Atlas 5 rocket launch of the twin Radiation Belt Storm Probes, the second spacecraft mission in NASA’s Living with a Star program. The probes settled into an elliptic orbit that cut through Earth’s radiation belts, home to highly variable populations of energetic particles dangerous to astronauts’ health and spacecraft operation. Renamed the Van Allen Probes soon after launch, the spacecraft are equipped with instruments designed to determine how these high-energy particles form, respond to solar variations, and evolve in space environments.

During their prime mission, the Van Allen Probes verified and quantified previously suggested energization processes, discovered new energization mechanisms, revealed the critical importance of dynamic plasma injections into the innermost magnetosphere, and used uniquely capable instruments to unveil inner radiation belt features that were all but invisible to previous sensors.

Now, through an extended mission that began 1 November 2015, the Van Allen Probes will advance understanding of the dynamics of near-Earth particle radiation. The overarching objective of this extended mission is to quantify the mechanisms governing Earth’s radiation belt and ring currentenvironment as the solar cycle transitions from solar maximum through the declining phase.

The complete article thanks to EOS magazine, here:

Cal Day 2016

Join us for Cal Day, SatCalDay-logos-2014urday, April 16th, from 12pm-5pm, the one day each year that UC Berkeley’s Space Sciences Lab opens its doors to the public. Shuttles will be transporting the public every 15 minutes from Hearst Mining Circle on campus to SSL. Activities include walking tours of UC Berkeley’s cutting-edge space science research lab, tech talks and general talks, a career panel on cool jobs in space science, and hands-on activities for all ages!  Below is a list of our planned activities.


Walking Tours (12:00 pm – 4:20 pm) See UC Berkeley’s cutting-edge space science research lab. Learn about the illustrious NASA missions, current and past, that Space Sciences had a hand in, visit our 60′ high bay, the cosmochemistry laboratories that analyzed lunar samples, a clean room where a Hubble instrument was built. Tours start at 12 am and leave every 20 minutes to 4:20pm. Last tour 4:20 p.m.


CalDay_PassportSignAdventures in Space Sciences Passports to Science@Cal

Learn about UV rays, make an origami Sun, play Solar Jeopardy, design your own planet to be loaded on the Magic Planet, look through a solar telescope. Many activities are specifically for children ages 6-12. Explore the world of science with your Passport to Science@Cal! At each of your destinations, your passport will get a fun stamp or sticker to show where your travels have taken you.


TECH TALKS    ADVANCED, HIGH LEVEL CONTENT

12:00 pm – 1:00 pm  Imaging With Neutrons: Can You See a Flower Through a Granite Wall? – Dr. Anton Tremsin  CANCELLED

Neutron detection technology developed for NASA astrophysical missions at Space Sciences Laboratory can reveal processes happening inside and behind thick objects–where an organic object is opaque and many metals can be easily penetrated. New data from these non-destructive studies will be presented.

1:00 pm – 02:00 pm  NASA’s ICON Mission – Dr. Scott England

Berkeley’s newest space mission, the Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) will explore the boundary region between Earth and space where ionized plasma collides and reacts with our atmosphere. Come learn more about this exciting mission set to launch in 2017.

2:00 pm – 3:00 pm  Missions OperatioMAVENns Center and Satellite Dish – Dr. Manfred Bester  NEW: Bryce Roberts

The Berkeley MOC serves as the satellite-control and data archiving facility for a number of different NASA missions and was designed to support multiple spacecraft operations. Hear about the science behind these missions and the history of our 36′ satellite-tracking antenna dish.

ONGOING – Silver Lobby –   From Lab to Launchpad – Chris Scholz

Come see a slideshow of Berkeley’s NASA missions as they are built, tested, shipped and prepared for launch. Featured is MAVEN, our latest mission to Mars. (will not be there from 1-2pm)


GENERAL TALKS / PANELS – INFORMATIONAL FOR ALL

12:00 pm – 1:00 pm  Report about LIGO and Gravitational Waves  – Dr. Harald Frey

Reports about the first measurement of gravitational waves made news headlines in February of this year. The main points of the General Theory of Relativity and Gravitational Waves will be explained to a general audience together with a discussion of the importance and implications of these very first measurements.

1:00 pm – 2:00 pm  Cool Careers in Space Science – panel discussion

Join a one-hour round table discussion at the Space Sciences Laboratory to hear students, scientists, and others share the varied paths they have taken to arrive at working in space science careers. Moderater: Ruth Paglierani, Panelists: Dr. Darcy Barron, Nicole Duncan, Dr. Matt Fillingim, & Chris Scholz

2:00 pm – 3:00 pm  Red Planet Facts – All about Mars – Dr. Matt Fillingim

Think you know all about our neighboring planet? This family-friendly talk will explain what makes Mars so interesting and how Berkeley was involved in NASA’s recent mission MAVEN.

3:00 pm – 4:00 pm  Cultural Expressions of the Sun – Dr. Bryan Mendez

The Sun has a powerful influence over life on Earth and is incorporated deeply into every human culture in both obvious and subtle ways. This family-friendly presentation will examine how peoples around the world and throughout time have expressed their ideas about the Sun in everything from agriculture, art, and literature to architecture, religion, and science.

4:00 pm – 5:00 pm  Antarctica and Space! – Dr. Kees Welten, Nicole Duncan

What can the coldest place on Earth tell us about space science? A lot, actually! From ice-core samples that tell us about the ancient Sun, to recent balloon missions that just launched. Come hear about how Berkeley missions has ties to the South Pole.


  Visit Our Neighbor: Lawrence Hall of Science

See how the Hall is inspiring the next generation of scientists, engineers, and designers. Have your Science@Cal passport stamped as you explore the wonderful world of science. Join free Planetarium presentations, design your own nano creations, and explore real-time datasets on Science On a Sphere. For more information, visit the Hall’s Cal Day page [link to: http://www.lawrencehallofscience.org/visit/events/cal_day_at_the_hall]

MAVEN Observes Mars Moon Phobos in the Mid- and Far-Ultraviolet

Phobos

(Image credits: University of Colorado Boulder/Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics/NASA)

Due to a recent close encounter between MAVEN and Mars’ moon Phobos, scientists at NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration are closer to solving the mystery of how the moon formed.

In late November and early December 2015, the ‪#‎MAVEN‬ mission made a series of close approaches to the ‪#‎Martian‬ moon Phobos, collecting data from within 300 miles (500 km) of the moon.

Among the data returned were spectral images of ‪#‎Phobos‬ in the ultraviolet. The images will allow MAVEN scientists to better assess the composition of this enigmatic object, whose origin is unknown.

Read the full story, here:

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(Image credits: University of Colorado Boulder/Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics/NASA)